Debug School


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linux assignment 2nd april 2023

1.What is EPEL and Write a instructions to install and use it.

: Stand for Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux, and is a special interest group from the Fedora Project that provides a set of additional packages for RHEL, CentOS and others from the Fedora sources.
a-Instructions to install EPEL:
-open a shell prompt
-Or login to a host called server1 using ssh client run su - or sudo -i to gain root access.
-yum update
-yum -y install epel-release
-yum repolist(Refresh epel repo)
-yum install pkg1(Install packages from epel repo)

2.What is diffrence between hypervisor and cloud?
Hypervisor: is a specialized firmware or software, or both, installed on single hardware that would allow you to host several virtual machines. It allows physical hardware to be shared across several virtual machines.
Cloud: is the Internet—It is all of the things you can access remotely over the Internet.

3.What are the Network Adaptor(Driver) you have in VirtualBox and write a usecase of it?
i.Not Attached-In this mode,VirtualBox reports to the guest that a network card is present,but there is no connection.

ii.NAT(Network Address Translation)-It’s a way to map multiple local private addresses to a public one before transferring the information

iii.NAT Network-It is type of internal network that allows outbound connections.

iv.Bridge networking-A network bridge is a computer networking device that creates a single, aggregate network from multiple communication networks or network segments. This function is called network bridging. Bridging is distinct from routing.

v.Internal networking-Internal Networking is similar to bridged networking in that the VM can directly communicate with the outside world. However, the outside world is limited to other VMs on the same host which connect to the same internal network
I. GREP-The grep command searches through many files at a time to find a piece of text you are looking for grep PATTERN [FILE] grep failed transaction.log The above command will find all of the words in the files that matched the word ‘failed’.
E.G - grep ‘failed’ transaction.log

Search a file with pattern

It will give all which have .txt at the end
$ find. /ABC -name sample.txt

$ xargs -a file1.txt : To read the items in a file, along with the -a option

delete a particular line
# sed 'sd' a.txt


set the permissions owner can read and write , group can read only, others can read only

eg -Chmod 644 file.txt

vi- Netstat:
$ netstat -l: List all the active connections.

vii -Route
$ sudo route: Print routing table in Linux.

$ script linux.txt : To record everything in the terminal

It displays active and inactive memory of the system running.
$vmstat -a

A visudo is a Linux command that is used to edit the sudoer file with “sudo” privileges. It allows you to safely edit the sudoer file and make any changes required without corrupting any file or removing any admin rights.
e.g-$ sudo visudo: opens sudoer file in terminal

print every line of data from the specified data.
$ awk '{print}' biswajit.txt

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