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Network, subnet, internet gateway, route table

NETWORK: A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources, exchange files or allow electronic communications. The computer on a network are connected through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or Infrared beams.
Benefits of a Network:

-> Information sharing – Authorized users can use other computers on the network to access and share information and data. This could include special group projects, databases, etc.
-> Hardware sharing – One device connected to a network, such as a printer or a scanner, can be shared by many users.
-> Software sharing – Instead of purchasing and installing a software program on each computer, it can be installed on the server. All of the users can then access the program from a single location.
-> Collaborative environment – Users can work together on group projects by combining the power and capabilities of diverse equipment.
Risks of networking:

  • Equipment malfunctions
  • System failures
  • Computer hackers
  • Virus attacks Types of network: 1) Local Area Network (LAN): It is usually privately owned and links the devices in a single office, building, or campus. Its size is limited to a few kilometers. It is designed to allow resources (h/w, s/w or data) to be shared between personal computers or workstations. In general, a given LAN will use only one type of transmission medium. The most common LAN topologies are bus, ring, and star. 2) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): It is designed to extend over an entire city. A company can use MAN to connect the LANs in all its offices throughout a city. Maybe wholly owned and operated by a private company or it may be service provided by a public company (local telephone company). 3) Wide Area Network (WAN): It provides long-distance transmission of data over a country, a continent, or even the worldwide. Maybe wholly owned and operated by a single company is referred to as an enterprise network.

SUBNET: A subnet is a segmented piece of a larger network. Subnets are a logical partition of an IP network into multiple, smaller network segments. One goal of a subnet is to split a large network into a grouping of smaller, interconnected networks to help minimize traffic. Subnetting, the segmentation of a network address space, improves address allocation efficiency.
-> Each subnet allows its connected devices to communicate with each other, while routers are used to communicate between subnets. The size of a subnet depends on the connectivity requirements and the network technology employed. A point-to-point subnet allows two devices to connect, while a data center subnet might be designed to connect many more devices.
Uses of Subnets:
1) Reallocating IP addresses. Each class has a limited number of host allocations; for example, networks with more than 254 devices need a Class B allocation. If a network administrator is working with a Class B or C network and needs to allocate 150 hosts for three physical networks located in three different cities, they would need to either request more address blocks for each network -- or divide a network into subnets that enable administrators to use one block of addresses on multiple physical networks.
2)Relieving network congestion. If much of an organization's traffic is meant to be shared regularly between the same cluster of computers, placing them on the same subnet can reduce network traffic. Without a subnet, all computers and servers on the network would see data packets from every other computer.
3) Improving network security. Subnetting allows network administrators to reduce network-wide threats by quarantining compromised sections of the network and by making it more difficult for trespassers to move around an organization's network.

INTERNET GATEWAY: An internet gateway is a horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC component that allows communication between your VPC and the internet. It supports IPv4 and IPv6 traffic. It does not cause availability risks or bandwidth constraints on your network traffic.
ROUTE TABLE: A route table is a data table with a set of rules used to determine where data packets travelling over an internet protocol network will be directed. All IP enabled devices including routers and switches use route tables.

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