In statistics, a moment is a numerical value that summarizes the shape of a probability distribution. There are different types of moments that are used to describe different aspects of the distribution.

**The first moment is the mean**, which measures the central tendency of the distribution. For example, the mean of the

```
following dataset of
exam scores:
85, 90, 75, 80, 95, is 85 + 90 + 75 + 80 + 95 / 5 = 85.
```

The **second moment is the variance**, which measures the spread of the distribution. A higher variance means that the data is more spread out, while a lower variance means that the data is more tightly clustered around the mean. For example, the variance of the same dataset of

```
exam scores is calculated as
((85-85)^2 + (90-85)^2 + (75-85)^2 + (80-85)^2 + (95-85)^2) / 5 = 110.
```

**The third moment is the skewness**, which measures the degree of asymmetry of the distribution. A **positive skewness** means that the tail of the distribution is longer on the right side, while a **negative skewness** means that the tail of the distribution is longer on the left side. For example, the skewness of the same dataset of exam scores can be calculated using Pearson's skewness coefficient or the moment coefficient of skewness.

The **fourth moment is the kurtosis**, which measures the degree of peakedness of the distribution. A higher kurtosis means that the distribution is more peaked and has fatter tails, while a lower kurtosis means that the distribution is flatter and has thinner tails. For example, the kurtosis of a dataset of exam scores can be calculated as the fourth moment around the mean divided by the square of the variance.

In summary, moments are numerical values that summarize different aspects of the shape of a probability distribution. The first moment is the mean, the second moment is the variance, the third moment is the skewness, and the fourth moment is the kurtosis. Each moment provides different information about the distribution, and can be used to describe and compare different datasets.

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